Ruminations on Specialism

Last spring I played host to two library science students from Germany who were doing internships with the University Library Services as part of their degree. One of the first activities I arranged when they arrived at the Music Library was a trip to Collection Management Services at McKenzie House to look at various music acquisitions and to learn more about the process of cataloguing music materials, in particular music scores and sound recordings.

 Cardiff University is very fortunate to have on staff the talented Janice Finnie, who has done the lion’s share of cataloguing University Library Services’ music materials for many years now. With the JISC-funded project, we also of course had Loukia Drosopoulou, a specialist in rare and antiquated music materials.

 Our visiting library students were able to first spend time with Loukia, who walked them through the process of using RISM (the international catalogue of music sources), to track down plate numbers, investigating signatures and bookplates to identify provenance, and the various highs and lows of attempting to catalogue materials that challenge modern cataloguing processes.

 They then spent time with Janice, who walked them through the intricacies of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules II, MARC 21, and how an item that could contain a multitude of authors, titles, and many additional layers of information can be squeezed into sometimes quite rigid record formats.

 Watching Loukia and Janice each demonstrate their skills, the tools of their trades, and examples of the surprisingly vast variety of materials they catalogue (considering all fall under the heading of “music”), really crystallised for me the importance of specialist information resource management and provision.

 Perhaps it’s simply a side-effect of globalisation and increasingly ergonomic technology, but I think that the seemingly shrinking value placed on specialists flies in the face of the growing need for knowledge and skills equipped to meet the demands for personalised service.

 As an active member of the national music librarian community, it has been painful to watch the intersection of increased expectation for skills diversification meeting the increased number of niche interests, as they together brave the oncoming storm of dwindling resources and bureaucratic apathy.

 That Cardiff University has managed to maintain its library experts to support students and staff in meeting demands both broad and narrow, and to help build collaborative engagement opportunities both internally and externally, is a testament to the institution and to the University Library Service. That Jisc  has supported what might be seen as a ‘traditional’ cataloguing project as part of its digital innovation programme is a testament to their organisation, as well.

 Tonight, I’ll be raising a glass to Loukia and her many discoveries and achievements with the Music Special Collections. I’ll also raise a glass to our Project Steering Committee and to the memorable experience of watching what happens when specialist skills, knowledge and experience come together. I hope that we’ll continue to buck the trends and that there will be many more opportunities to celebrate our specialists in the future.

On the Importance of the Aylward and Mackworth Printed Music Collections

By Professor Rudolf Rasch

Why are the Aylward and Mackworth printed music collections important for musicians and musicologists? Although I have not gone through the entire collections, rather the opposite, I have only seen a very small portion of them, still some remarks can be made.

First of all, we should be happy with every copy of an early edition of music that has been preserved. We may think that once we know a piece of music from one source, all the other sources are no longer relevant. But it is just the opposite: copies of early music may be similar, but they may be different as well. Composers and publishers may have inserted changes and additions, and users may have left indications on them such as fingerings and articulations. The more copies we have of the same composition, the better we can tell the story and the history that are present in every piece of music. The number of preserved copies is a rough estimate of its popularity, and the variation between the copies shows us to what extent music was merely left as it was or instead arranged, corrected, changed, improved, etc.

Another feature of many items in the Aylward and Mackworth collections is that they are still as they were when they were last used. This means that they show their way of being used, they have signatures of former owners, and copies bound together also tell us about the taste of certain owners, and so on. Other music collections in libraries often have rebound all the early music and have thereby destroyed a lot of information about the history of the book.

Also, the Aylward and Mackworth collections are typical collections where “surprises” are possible. The collections were brought together over a considerable stretch of time, probably by more than one person, and they reflect a variety of tastes and preferences. By this they may have somewhat unpredictable contents, and among these unpredicted items may be rare or even unique items.

I have studied in detail only the Geminiani editions in the two collections, which, although not very large in number, have brought me to new ideas about the history of these editions. It was for instance the first time I saw Whatman watermarks in Geminiani’s music. (So far in music scholarship, these watermarks had only been found in music by Handel.) Also, a copy of the composer’s Concerti grossi Op.2 (AYL 480-486 (3)) looked in one way like a Walsh edition, and in other ways like Geminiani’s private edition. A comparison with other similar copies of this edition brought me to the conclusion that at a certain point of time Geminiani did not have sheets of all the pages of the edition left. Then John Walsh printed anew the missing pages so that at the end there is some kind of a composite edition. Such conclusions are only possible by studying a number of copies of an edition.

Cataloguing issues

During one of the Steering Group meetings held on the project, the problem of documenting different issues of the same edition – and so the different stages of an edition – was raised, especially for copies that also contained newly engraved plates.

The ‘Aylward’ collection is particularly rich in multiple copies of an edition, which are often found in different bound volumes. The cataloguing is assisting in bringing these together, as often such copies are scattered across the entire collection which also makes it difficult to see the exact holdings for a particular edition, especially for sets of parts. In many cases this has brought together different parts of incomplete sets, forming complete, or less incomplete, sets.

Publications by the firm of John Walsh are a frequent example where different issues of the same edition are found. Figure 1 illustrates an example of two different issues of Corelli’s Concerti grossi op.6 published by the Walsh firm, with the first showing signs of worn and cracked plates and the second, a later issue, newly engraved ones.

Rather than documenting such differences on one bibliographic record, the Steering Group, formed out of experts in the field of Music Publishing in the 18th and 19th centuries decided on creating different bibliographic records for each different issue found in the collection.

This practice will assist readers in identifying more easily different issues held in the SCOLAR music collections, and will enable research on various aspects of printed music, such as publishers’ practices and the popularity of and demand for certain repertoire, music engravers’ style, and the chronology of printed sources.

Figure 1: Examples of different issues of A. Corelli’s Concerti Grossi Op.6  published by the film of John Walsh (RISM A/I, C 3847)

AYL 480a

SCOLAR, AYL 480, p.24

AYL 480b

SCOLAR, AYL 480, p.25

AYL 69.a

SCOLAR, AYL 69, p.24

AYL 69.b

SCOLAR, AYL 69, p.25

Cardiff Music Lecture – hits a high note !

The first of this year’s series of Rare Books and Music Lectures was presented by Dr Loukia Drosopoulou, the academic specialist who is working on the cataloguing of the Music historical collections in the JISC funded project in Cardiff. Her lecture title – ’18th and 19th Century Music Collections at Cardiff’, was subtitled: ‘Travelling Collections’, and this was a major strand in her talk, relating the complex and compelling historical story of the provenance of these collections, and their journey from printer, publisher or family owner, to the public and university libraries which have held these music scores and manuscripts for the last two centuries and more.

The lecture covered the range of collections held, arising from ownership by the Mackworth family in the 18th century, the Aylward collection started in the 19th century, and the BBC collection formed in the 20th century, but all of them including materials going back several centuries, from across Britain and the Continent.

An outline of the complicated printing and publishing history was illustrated by images from a range of the scores whose minor differences all added to the difficulties of clearly identifying specific dates of publication, publishing houses, composers names, and a host of more intricate details which make chronicling the history of these source documents so challenging.

The lecture was concluded by reference to one of the composers included in the collection, not so famous now but important in his day, Boccherini; a recorded piece of his 18th century music was played, and was a high point in the presentation, allowing all who attended to gain an impression of the musical treasures which are contained in Cardiff’s large and impressive historical music collections.

The RISM Series A/I CD-ROM

The CD-ROM of the RISM Series A/I: Individual prints before 1800 that we have acquired for the project is proving an invaluable resource for the cataloguing of our collections. The CD-ROM was released in 2011 and includes all entries listed in the printed volumes of the RISM Series A/I, but its electronic format makes it easy to search the database by terms such as the title of a work, publishers’ plate numbers, names of engravers, place of publication and other.

Apart from making it easier to find the RISM A/I numbers, included in all bibliographic records created for pre-1800 printed items, the CD-ROM is proving particularly useful for identifying editions in the collections that are lacking a title page, either due to imperfect copies held or due to the collection holding certain instrumental parts only of a publication which were issued without a title page.

Once such example in the Aylward collection was an item misbound with Thomas Arne’s Lyric Harmony, published by Harrison & Co with plate numbers 20-21 (AYL 4). Only pages 25-33 were held of this item, bearing the plate number 27. The edition concerned a set of concertos as evident from the headings of the 5th and 6th works, and from the similar engraving with Thomas Arne’s Lyric Harmony it was possible to see that the publisher was the same.

Just by doing a search on the RISM CD-ROM for Harrison & Co and plate number 27 it was instantly possible to find out that the pages were from Harrison & Co’s edition of Handel’s 6 organ concertos op. 7 (HWV 306-311), now catalogued as (AYL 4a).

Miss Beckford’s collection of vocal duets

One of the strengths of the Aylward collection is that several original covers of collection items have been preserved, containing ownership annotations and bookplates that reveal important information about their provenance. In certain cases, the information goes all the way back to their first owner.

One such example that turned up quite early in the cataloguing of the collection is a volume with vocal duets and other pieces by the brothers Bonifacio and Luigi Asioli, published by Robert Birchall (AYL 7 (1-8)). The volume bears the cover label: ‘Asioli’s Duets &c / Miss Beckford’, and several title pages the name ‘Harriet Beckford’ in manuscript. The volume also bears the bookplate of Henry Seymer of Hanford, Dorset.

AYL 7 cover label

It appears that its first owner, Harriet Beckford (1779-1853), was the daughter of Sir Peter Beckford (1740–1811), notable patron of Muzio Clementi (1752-1832). According to Grove, Peter Beckford brought Clementi to England around 1766 to his own private estate and supported his musical training there for the next seven years. Although this took place before she was born, it illustrates the important musical environment she would have been brought up in, and the high standard of musical training she would have received at home.

AYL 7 (1): Title page with Harriet Beckford’s name marked at the top

Her uncle too, William Beckford (1760-1844), was a notable music patron and author amongst other writings of Italy; with sketches of Spain and Portugal where he describes a private musical evening in Madrid in 1787 in the presence of the composer Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805).

In 1807, Harriet Beckford married Henry Seymer (later Ker-Seymer) and the Aylward collection contains several additional volumes with his bookplate. Her portrait (Mrs Henry Ker-Seymer) was painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1840).

The notable family history of the owner of this volume in the Aylward collection greatly increases its value, and offers significant potential for research in the family’s musical activities and relations to notable composers and musicians of their time.

I am hoping by the end of the project to have formed a small collection within the Aylward collection of the Seymer family’s music volumes, and it would also be interesting to find out more about Harriet Beckford’s own musical training and skills as a performer.

                         AYL 7 (1-8)

Cataloguing the Aylward collection

I recently joined the project team as Project Cataloguer and through my postings I would like to share with you the progress I am making on the cataloguing of the three Historic Music Collections held in SCOLAR, i.e. the Aylward, BBC, and Mackworth collections, as well as interesting items I am coming across in the process.

I have started with the cataloguing of the Aylward collection, named after its former owner Theodore Edward Aylward (1844-1933) who held a number of posts as organist during his lifetime, most importantly at Llandaff Cathedral (1870-1876), Chichester Cathedral (1876-1886), and finally St. Andrew’s Church in Cardiff (1886-1925).

His collection comprises over 800 items, ranging largely from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, and contains both vocal and instrumental music.

If you would like to browse the items already catalogued, the best way would be to do a keyword search on the Cardiff University Library catalogue for the name ‘Aylward, Theodore Edward’.  As we are including his name on all records as a former owner, this will bring out all records created. Please note that not all the information we are inputting is currently displayed on the OPAC, so if you would like to view the full bibliographic record you should click on ‘MARC Format’ on the right of the record display.

http://library.cardiff.ac.uk/

In this view you will find additional information about the musical works and also the physical characteristics of the collection items. These include any manuscript annotations that are found on title pages and the musical text as well as bookplates, cover labels etc. revealing important information about the provenance of the copies and the places Aylward was able to acquire them. In addition, any information about the specific copy or set of parts, such as missing pages or parts will be listed here.

For this project we are working closely with RISM-UK and will be sending all records created for pre 1850 items to be incorporated onto the RISM-UK database:

http://www.rism.org.uk

For this reason we are including additional fields used by RISM such as a faithful transcription of the full title page and text incipit information for vocal works on such records. These can likewise be viewed on the ‘MARC view’ display.

We hope that you will find interest in the items catalogued and will be posting more news in the next few weeks on exciting discoveries that are already emerging from the collection!

Loukia Drosopoulou